your liver is injured — whether by disease, excessive alcohol consumption or
another cause — it tries to repair itself. In the process, scar tissue forms.
As cirrhosis progresses, more and more scar tissue forms, making it difficult
for the liver to function (decompensated cirrhosis). Advanced cirrhosis is
damage done by cirrhosis generally can't be undone. But if liver cirrhosis is
diagnosed early and the cause is treated, further damage can be limited and,
·Easily bleeding or bruising
·Loss of appetite
·Swelling in your legs, feet or ankles (edema)
·Yellow discoloration in the skin and eyes (jaundice)
·Fluid accumulation in your abdomen (ascites)
·Spiderlike blood vessels on your skin
·Redness in the palms of the hands
·For women, absent or loss of periods not related to menopause
·For men, loss of sex drive, breast enlargement (gynecomastia) or
·Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic
see a doctor
appointment with your doctor if you have any of the signs or symptoms listed above.
range of diseases and conditions can damage the liver and lead to cirrhosis.
the causes include:
·Chronic alcohol abuse
·Chronic viral hepatitis (hepatitis B, C and D)
·Fat accumulating in the liver (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease)
·Iron buildup in the body (hemochromatosis)
·Copper accumulated in the liver (Wilson's disease)
·Poorly formed bile ducts (biliary atresia)
·Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
·Inherited disorders of sugar metabolism (galactosemia or
glycogen storage disease)
·Genetic digestive disorder (Alagille syndrome)
·Liver disease caused by your body's immune system (autoimmune
·Destruction of the bile ducts (primary biliary cirrhosis)
·Hardening and scarring of the bile ducts (primary sclerosing
·Infection, such as syphilis or brucellosis
·Medications, including methotrexate or isoniazid
·Drinking too much alcohol. Excessive
alcohol consumption is a risk factor for cirrhosis.
·Being overweight. Being obese increases your risk of conditions that may
lead to cirrhosis, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic
·Having viral hepatitis. Not everyone with chronic
hepatitis will develop cirrhosis, but it's one of the world's leading causes of
of cirrhosis can include:
·High blood pressure in the veins that supply the liver (portal
hypertension). Cirrhosis slows the normal flow of blood through the
liver, thus increasing pressure in the vein that brings blood to the liver from
the intestines and spleen.
·Swelling in the legs and abdomen. The increased
pressure in the portal vein can cause fluid to accumulate in the legs (edema)
and in the abdomen (ascites). Edema and ascites also may result from the
inability of the liver to make enough of certain blood proteins, such as
·Enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly). Portal
hypertension can also cause changes to and swelling of the spleen, and trapping
of white blood cells and platelets. Decreased white blood cells and platelets
in your blood can be the first sign of cirrhosis.
·Bleeding. Portal hypertension can cause blood to be redirected to
smaller veins. Strained by the extra pressure, these smaller veins can burst,
causing serious bleeding. Portal hypertension may cause enlarged veins
(varices) in the esophagus (esophageal varices) or the stomach (gastric
varices) and lead to life-threatening bleeding. If the liver can't make enough
clotting factors, this also can contribute to continued bleeding.
·Infections. If you have cirrhosis, your body may have difficulty
fighting infections. Ascites can lead to bacterial peritonitis, a serious
·Malnutrition. Cirrhosis may make it more difficult for your body to
process nutrients, leading to weakness and weight loss.
·Buildup of toxins in the brain (hepatic encephalopathy). A liver damaged
by cirrhosis isn't able to clear toxins from the blood as well as a healthy
liver can. These toxins can then build up in the brain and cause mental
confusion and difficulty concentrating. With time, hepatic encephalopathy can
progress to unresponsiveness or coma.
·Jaundice. Jaundice occurs when the diseased liver doesn't remove
enough bilirubin, a blood waste product, from your blood. Jaundice causes
yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes and darkening of urine.
·Bone disease. Some people with cirrhosis lose bone strength and are at
greater risk of fractures.
·Increased risk of liver cancer. A large
proportion of people who develop liver cancer have pre-existing cirrhosis.
·Acute-on-chronic cirrhosis. Some people
end up experiencing multiorgan failure. Researchers now believe this is a
distinct complication in some people who have cirrhosis, but they don't fully
understand its causes.
your risk of cirrhosis by taking these steps to care for your liver:
·Do not drink alcohol if you have cirrhosis. If you have
liver disease, you should avoid alcohol.
·Eat a healthy diet. Choose a plant-based diet that's
full of fruits and vegetables. Select whole grains and lean sources of protein.
Reduce the amount of fatty and fried foods you eat.
·Maintain a healthy weight. An excess
amount of body fat can damage your liver. Talk to your doctor about a
weight-loss plan if you are obese or overweight.
·Reduce your risk of hepatitis. Sharing
needles and having unprotected sex can increase your risk of hepatitis B and C.
Ask your doctor about hepatitis vaccinations.