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OUR EXPERTISE

Our Expertise List

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PSORIASIS

PSORIASIS INDRODUCTION • The main abnormality in psoriasis is the increased epidermal proliferation due to excessive division of cells in the stra

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SCIATICA

LUMBAGO SCIATICA SYNDROME/ Intervertebral Disc Prolapse (IVDP). • Lumbago is acute low backache. • Sciatica is the neuralgic pain that starts in the

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VITILIGO

VITILIGO INTRODUCTION • Occurs due to selective destruction of the skin melanocytes that results in development of unsightly depigmented patches. •

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WARTS & CORNS

WARTS INTRODUCTION • Warts are the cutaneous manifestations of human papillomavirus (HPV). • Warts may exist in different forms:    • Common war

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ACID PEPTIC DISEASE (APD)

ACID PEPTIC DISEASE OR PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE • Peptic ulcer refers to an ulcer in the lower oesophagus, stomach or duodenum, in the jejunum after surg

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ACNE VULGARIS

ACNE VULGARIS INTRODUCTION • This is a disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of blocked pilosebaceous follicles. It predominantly affects t

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ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS/ RHEUMATOID SPONDYLITIS • Ankylosing spondylitis is a seronegative chronic inflammatory arthritis that primarily affects the a

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BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

BRONCHIAL ASTHMA DEFINATION   • Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterised by chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. I

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CHRONIC BRONCHITIS

CHRONIC BRONCHITIS DEFINITION   • Chronic bronchitis is defined as a condition associated with excessive tracheobronchial mucus production to cause

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CERVICAL SPONDYLITIS

CERVICAL SPONDYLOSIS/ SPONDYLITIS • Spondylitis suggests inflammation of intervertebral joints. However, the term commonly refers to degenerative dis

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DERMATITIS & ECZEMA

DERMATITIS ECZEMA INTRODUCTION • The terms eczema and dermatitis are used synonymously. Eczema is not a specific disease entity but a characteristic

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GOUT

GOUT Aetiology of Gout and Hyperuricaemia 1-Increased production of uric acid 2-Decreased renal excretion of uric acid • Renal failure • Lead pois

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IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS)

IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a benign, chronic symptom complex of altered bowel habits and abdominal pain. Aetiology

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MIGRAINE

MIGRAINE • Migraine is characterised by periodic headaches, typically unilateral, often associated with visual disturbance and vomiting. Precipitati

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EPILEPSY

EPILEPSY Definition of Epilepsy. • Brief recurrent disorder of cerebral function that is usually associated with disturbance of consciousness and ac

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MELASMA

Melasma (also known as chloasma) is a tan or dark skin discoloration. Melasma is thought to be caused by sun exposure, genetic predisposition, hormone

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RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS Introduction • RA is a chronic inflammatory joint disease with multisystem involvement. • Females are affected three times mor

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CONSTIPATION

CONSTIPATION • Constipation-patients having bowel movements less frequently than three times a week. If stool is hard and difficult to pass, patient

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NASAL POLYPS

Introduction Nasal polyps are hypertrophied oedematous mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses resulting in a pedunculated mass. This is not a new g

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URINARY TRACT INFECTION ( UTI

URINARY TRACT INFECTION (UTI) • UTI may be anatomically subdivided into lower tract infections (urethritis, prostatitis and cystitis) and upper tract

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OBESITY

• The term obesity implies excess of adipose tissue measured by the following- • Body mass index (BMI). It is defined as person's weight (kg) divided

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VIRAL HEPATITIS

Types of Viral Hepatitis • Hepatitis A, caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV) • Hepatitis B, caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) • Delta hepatitis, cause

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DIABETES MELLITUS (DM)

Defination • Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a clinical syndrome characterised by hyperglycaemia due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin, or both

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IMPOTENCE

Introduction • Male sexual dysfunction is termed impotence. It may manifest in various ways like loss of desire, inability to obtain and maintain ere

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BELLS PALSY

Introduction • Aetiology is not definitely known. Herpes simplex virus and herpes zoster are suspected. • Pathologically, oedema and swelling of the

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HERPES ZOSTER

Aetiology • Herpes zoster is the result of reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) lying dormant in the dorsal root ganglion following chicken p

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CIRRHOSIS OF LIVER

Aetiology of cirrhosis • Alcoholic cirrhosis • Post-necrotic cirrhosis or post-viral cirrhosis • Hepatitis B • Hepatitis C • Delta hepatitis (hepatiti

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INFLAMMATOTY BOWEL DISEASES

​​​​​​​• Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic inflammatory disorders of gastrointestinal tract characterised by a relapsing and remitting course.

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ALOPECIA AREATA

Introduction Alopecia areata, also known as spot baldness, is a condition in which hair is lost from some or all areas of the body. Often, it results

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HAIR LOSS

Introduction Hair loss (alopecia) can affect just your scalp or your entire body, and it can be temporary or permanent. It can be the result of hered

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BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (

Introduction Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate gland. The unde

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DEPRESSION

Introduction • Depressive disorders are characterised by persistent low mood, loss of interest and enjoyment and reduced energy. They often impair da

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OSTEOARTHROSIS KNEE

Osteoarthrosis is a degenerative condition of the joints. As there is no inflammatory process, the earlier terminology of osteoarthritis is no longer

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PAINFUL HEEL

Pain in the heel is one of the common presenting complaints in young adults or middle aged persons. It can also occur in adolescents. The causes of su

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PERIARTHRITIS SHOULDER

Periarthritis is a condition characterised by in and progressive limitation of some movements of the shoulder joint occurring in the elderly. The pat

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TENNIS ELBOW (Lateral epicondy

Tennis elbow is an inflammatory condition of the common extensor origin over the lateral epicondyle. This condition does not affect tennis players onl

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GANGLION

Ganglion is a cystic swelling in the dorsum of the wrist, It can occur in the volar aspect also. In the dorsum, it consists of synovial protrusion fro

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CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE (CRF)

• Chronic renal failure (CRF) is defined as irreversible deterioration in renal function over 3 months with GFR <15/minute/1.73 m2 Causes • Primary

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TUBERCULOSIS OF THE SPINE (Pot

Incidence Tuberculosis of the spine forms 50-60 percent of the total incidence of skeletal tuberculosis. It is a disease of childhood and adolescence,

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ACUTE TONSILLITIS

This is generalised inflammation of the faucial tonsils and is usually caused by haemolytic streptococci. It can occur at any age, but more common in

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PARALYSIS OF THE VOCAL CORDS

MOTOR PARALYSIS OF THE VOCAL CORDS Vocal cord paralysis may be- (A) Unilateral (a) Right; (b) Left. (B) Bilateral (a) Abductor (b) Adductor (c)

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TRIGGER FINGER & TRIGGER THUMB

TRIGGER FINGER Trigger finger is a condition of obstruction in the free movement of the finger, with sudden release on extension. This is common in t

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LUMBAGO SCIATICA SYNDROME/ Int

• Lumbago is acute low backache. • Sciatica is the neuralgic pain that starts in the back and radiates along the posterior aspect of lower limb to he

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NASAL ALLERGY (Allergic rhinit

Allergy is an abnormal response of the tissues to certain material, often a protein, which is called allergen This reaction results in the formation o

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FATTY LIVER

Introduction • Fatty liver indicates presence of excess fat in the liver. Causes of Fatty Liver Alcohol Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

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HICCOUGH

Introduction • Hiccough is a phenomenon resulting from sudden spasmodic involuntary contraction of the diaphragm with the glottis remaining closed.

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OSTEOPOROSIS

Introduction • Osteoporosis is characterised by a reduction in the mass of bone per unit volume (osteopenia) to a level below that required for adequ

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ANXIETY DISORDERS

Anxiety states • Panic disorder • Generalised anxiety disorder • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Phobic disorders • Agoraphobia

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OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

• Previously grouped under anxiety disorders. • Obsessions are persistent intrusive thoughts. Compulsions are intrusive behaviours. Attempts made to

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SCHIZOPHRENIA

• Schizophrenia is a group of disorders characterised by perturbations in language, perception, cognition and behaviour. Aetiology • A number of fac

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SMOKING AND ITS HEALTH RISKS

Contents of Cigarette Smoke • More than 4000 substances in cigarette smoke. Mainly, • Carcinogens- Tar • Co-carcinogens-Phenols • Addicting agent-

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POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE

• Adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) is an autosomal dominant disorder. The cortex and medulla of both kidneys are usually filled with thin-walled

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CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

• CKD is defined as abnormalities of kidney structure or function, present for >3 months, with implications for health. Progression • Major outcomes

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CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MED

The condition is defined as a long standing chronic suppuration of the middle ear cleft and its muco-periosteal lining resulting in discharging ear an

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CHRONIC SINUSITIS

Definition This is chronic inflammatory process affecting the mucosa of various groups of paranasal sinuses.  Aetiology 1. Follows repeated attacks

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HAEMORRHOIDS (PILES)

Definition Dilated plexus of superior haemorrhoidal veins, in relation to anal canal. Classification-aetiological I. Primary/Idiopathic haemorrhoid

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